Functions and Working of Ad Servers

Ad server is a useful software widely used in digital ads. These ads involve publishers, advertisers and marketers. They perform monitoring on aspects like the number of clicks, and verify results of the businesses. It is worthwhile to know how these ad servers work.

An ad server serves the purpose of publishing ads in targeted websites according to a predetermined time across geographical areas. Ad servers are widely used by ad networks, advertisers, and publishers.

Ad servers are used to post ads on websites. Ad servers make sure the ads are displayed where they are targeted as per audience, time and locality.

How an ad server works?
Ad serving is a technology that uses software to place ads on websites. It also involves serving ads, optimally target them and choose them according the place and web page.

Ad servers are responsible servers and decide what ads are to be displayed, which are to be tracked such as impression and clicks.

Technically speaking, the explanation goes thus: When a user visits a website, the site gets prompted to send a message to the browser. The browser in turn approaches the relevant server. The server furnishes ads as per request of the browser. The ads are sent to the browser that are displayed in the website. Now the user can get the display ads on the target page. This is how the ad servers work.

What an ad server does?

  • An ad server uploads ads as required. It also uploads rich-media. Rich media include interactive means of communication such as animation, audio, games, graphics, text, videos, etc.
  • Ad servers make sure the proper traffic of ads happens. This depends on the terms associated with business between the publisher, advertiser and the business owner.
  • Ad servers target ads depending on users or content. This is done based on the past browsing behavior of the user. The ad server sends relevant ads to the displayed page. Ads are also targeted according to the geographical location. The ads are programmed to be displayed on target web pages in a certain part of the globe.
  • Ad servers furnish the data on impressions, number of clicks, and the activities following clicks, how the interaction and its duration.

Ad servers are an important means of doing business for all those involved in digital advertising. With appropriate planning and managing the ads optimally get good results for ad server usage.
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Hiring the Right Lawyer? Know How

www.kmpetersonlaw.netHiring the right lawyer may seem an easy task, but it is actually a process that takes time and needs careful research. When you put your case in the lawyer’s hands, you need to feel confident that the lawyer you have hired has good experience, qualifications and skills to give you the results you expect. In this article, we have provided some basic guidelines that will help you find the right lawyer for your legal needs.

Law Office of Brendan Duganne PLLCCheck how long the lawyer has been in practice
It is important to hire a lawyer with extensive experience in handling your type of legal problem. For example, if you have hired a personal injury attorney to sue the negligent party, it’s crucial the attorney has a proven history of getting successful jury verdicts. The longer the attorney has been in practice in the field, the more experience they are likely to have, and there are more chances of you winning the lawsuit.

Track record
Don’t just hire an attorney by just looking at the educational qualification, make sure to check for the track record. The best way to inquire about your attorneys’ track record is consult Martindale-Hubbell law directory. Martindale-Hubbell is a very good resource for information about a law firm and its lawyers. It includes ratings of the law firms and lawyers based upon peer reviews. These reviews will help you in hiring a qualified lawyer.

Do a background check
Contact your state bar association to learn if the lawyer is in a good standing. You can also check references, especially if you have located the attorney through the Internet. However, some directories also provide information about the lawyer like years of experience, practice areas, types of cases they handle, their philosophy and professional skills and expertise. A background check will help you make a better decision.

Ask friends and family for recommendations
If you have never hired a lawyer, check with friends, colleagues and relatives to recommend a lawyer they have hired before for similar problems. A personal recommendation is a good way to find a suitable lawyer.

Is the fee reasonable in comparison with other lawyers’ charges
Finding the right lawyer means finding the one whose services is reasonable. Compare the charges with other lawyers and check yourself whether the lawyer is charging a fair amount considering the services.

Other than factors like experience, track record, reputation and cost, you also need to be comfortable working with your lawyer. Comfort level includes your lawyer’s overall behavior, good working relationship and trust. You need to hire the right lawyer based on these to do the job for you.
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Technologies for Seniors’ Safety and Mobility in Cars

Seniors’ safety and mobility is an important factor while they are in driving. There are technologies developed especially for senior citizens’ safety and mobility. Some of them are given under to have safe driving for seniors.

Enhanced night vision
This System helps elderly drivers who can’t really visualize things beyond a fixed distance. This system will detect the vehicles coming there car using some infra red lights, special type of cameras, head up displays and other kinds of technologies. These will alert the driver through a monitor if there are risks confronting them. Thus, you have better chance of avoiding accidents.

Advanced head lightening system
This is some what similar to the night vision technology. Advanced head lightening system can detect the sights in the corners and it can also detect the vehicles in bad weather conditions. It increases the visibility at night and reduces the accidents. Particularly this system helps the old drivers.

Adaptive cruise control
Adaptive cruise control helps in controlling the car speed to match it with the vehicle coming towards it. This is done by slowing it down. This system is completely autonomous and doesn’t need the intrusion of the driver or other external infrastructures. Therefore, there won’t be a burden on senior drivers.

Lane change collision avoiding system
This system is designed to avoid lane changing by giving alerts to the drivers regarding the risks in the adjacent lane when drivers change the lane. This system can detect the vehicles that are in surroundings and gives a notification to the driver through a signal. This reduces crashes that might occur.

Intersection collision warning system
Crashes may occur during the intersection points of the vehicles especially in rural and urban intersections. This warns the drivers of the traffic that is approaching towards the vehicle.

Improved crash injury protection
There are diverse crash protection systems developed: crumple zones, auto emergency braking, etc. This improved features help senior drivers protect themselves without any involvement. These type of improved systems will automatically work if they detect any risks coming towards the car.

These advanced technologies help the old drivers get protection even when they are alone. Some of these technologies automatically work without the involvement of the driver. So, it is recommended for the old drivers to have this kind of systems or equipments in there car when they are driving. This will help them a lot.

The Working of the Steering Mechanism in Automotives

Ever thought how it all works when you are using a steering wheel? When you turn the wheel right, the wheels turn right and when you turn it left the wheels turn left. This might seem like it is caused by a simple mechanically adjusted reaction, but what actually happens inside is a bit more complicated than that. A steering mechanism in a vehicle enables the vehicle to move in directions other than forward and back. Since this is an inevitable maneuver, all vehicles have it. Here’s how it works.

Steering mechanisms are of three kinds – Rack and pinion, recirculating ball and power steering. Rack and pinion and recirculating ball are different kinds of steering mechanisms, but power steering is only an adjustment on both. So, power steering could either be of the rack and pinion type or of the recirculating ball type.

Rack and pinion
The rack and pinion is a very simple mechanism of steering. It is the most commonly seen steering mechanism and it uses the technique of rack and pinion to steer the wheels.
The steering shaft connects the steering wheel to the pinion gear. The shaft rotates with the steering wheel and rotates the pinion gear. The pinion gear in turn rotates the rack and the tie rods at the end of each rack are connected to the steering arm and the spindle.

When the driver turns the steering wheel right, the pinion wheel rotates and thus moves the rack left or right. This sideways movement pushes the right steering arm to the right and pulls the left wheel towards the same direction. Due to this, the wheel makes a rotational movement towards the right, horizontally about its central axis. This means the wheels turn to the right and as the vehicle is pushed forward by the engine, it moves towards the right.

Steering ratio
There are calculations about how much the wheel would turn for a certain angle of turning the steering wheel. For example, if you finish one complete revolution of the steering wheel, and if the wheel turns by 20 degrees, then the steering ration is 360/20 = 18:1. Steering ratio depends on the kind of vehicle in question. A high steering ratio means, one has to turn the steering wheel more to turn the wheel to a certain angle.

Sports cars have a low steering ratio in order to reduce the amount of hand movement and to have a quick response. Since engines are light, one does not have to use a lot of strength in steering the wheel.
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Alternative fuels for Automobiles

What are alternative fuels?
Alternative fuels are non-conventional fuels used as an alternative to the conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include fossil fuels, coal, natural gas, etc., and elements like uranium and thorium which are used in nuclear power generation. On the other hand alternative fuels include, Bio-diesel, bio-alcohol, natural gas, vegetable oils, stored electricity etc. Alternative fuels are also referred to as bio fuels.

Bio fuel is a kind of fuel that contains usable energy in them due to the process of carbon fixation that happened recently (Fuel like petrol and diesel are got from a source that is formed over a lot of years). These fuels are produced by living organisms as opposed to formation solely due to inorganic chemical reactions. Bio-fuel can be produced by converting the existing bio-mass to energy-containing substances. This is done in three ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion and bio-chemical conversion.

Ethanol is a bio alternative to gasoline. It is produced from the conversion of corn, barley and other natural products. The special feature of ethanol is that it is the only alternative fuel to gasoline that can run on a gasoline engine without any modifications. However, it is only used as an additive today. It is mixed with gasoline at different concentrations to cut down the emission dangers caused by pure gasoline. A 10% ethanol fuel means a 10% concentration of ethanol in gasoline. Most fuel stations in the US have the facility and in some places the concentration may even be higher.

Bio-diesel is a bio substitute for diesel and it is produced from sugar beet, rapeseed or palm oil. It is also sometimes individually prepared from the used oil from fryers. It pollutes the environment much less than diesel in that it does not produce much carbon-di-oxide. But mass production and continued usage of this is undesirable because it leads to afforestation.

Vegetable oil
Edible vegetable oil as such isn’t used as fuel; rather, low quality oils can be used for this purpose. Over time, vegetable oils are increasingly being processed into bio-fuel. Otherwise it is simply removed of its water content and other particles before usage. To ensure that the fuel injectors use vegetable oil efficiently and atomize it, the viscosity of the oil should be decreased to the level of diesel by heating with the use of electric coils or heat exchangers. This is easier in warm climates. Some companies even produce that can be run on straight vegetable oils without any aftermarket modifications.

Algal bio-fuels
Algal fuel is an alternative to other fossil fuel which is produced from algae. The implementation of this fuel in vehicles is not successfully done as yet but several companies and the government is pushing forward to the standardization of algal fuel as an alternative to main fuels. Algae can be converted into fuel using various methods. The lipid, which is the oily part of the algae, can be extracted in the same way as fuel is extracted from vegetable oil.
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Get to Know How a Locking Differential Works

Fuel pumpThe locking differential locks both the wheels to the same axle. Different from an open differential, which splits the rotational force between the wheels and letting them spin at different speeds, a locking differential does not allow them to spin at differing speeds.

An open differential allows for individual tire spins during turns, or other wise it would result in tire scuffing. But the disadvantage with this is that in off-road situations, the tires would slip, because the differential transfer torque to the wheel that offers less resistance, thereby decreasing torque on wheels which receive good traction.

A locking differential is designed to overcome this. What a locking differential does is that it locks both the differentials on particular conditions, offering the same torque, regardless of the traction the individual wheels are receiving. A locking differential is no use unless there is a significant difference in the spinning speeds of the wheels. And because of that a locking differential is used only in off-road vehicles.

The working of a locking differential is simple. It simply provides a shift between unlocked (open differential) and locked wheels. This locking and unlocking of this facility can either be done manually or automatically. There are two kinds of locking differentials, Selectable locking and Automatic locking.

Selectable locking
This requires the driver to switch between open or closed differential manually. This can be accomplished in many ways. 1) compressed air 2) cable operated mechanism 3) electronic solenoids.

The electronic method is also called the ‘e locker’ and is highly complex and requires some forward thinking for the driver to use it effectively.

Automatic lockers
The automatic lockers do not require the driver to lock the differentials manually. This system ensures that power is transmitted to all the wheels regardless of traction. But it ensures one wheel is slower than the other during a turning. Since at the position of movement, the wheels are locked, the correct term would be ‘automatic un-lockers.’

a) Automatic action, no driver decision necessary.
b) Cons: Increased tire wear and noticeable impact on driving behavior. During cornering, the automatic locker is characterized by heavy understeer which gets transferred instantly to power oversteer when traction is exceeded.

A spool is a device that directly connects the wheels to the ring gear. Since there is no left-right differentiation in speeds, scruffing of tire happens and it becomes unmanageable in wet weather. This mechanism is used only in competition vehicles and not used in normal purpose cars.
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About Sports Cars

A sports car belongs to a category of cars that are low to ground, less weight, and are high-powered. Looking at the specifications, one can easily say that this category of cars belong to a distinct and elite category of cars. Owing to the high speeds of the car, the handling is also equipped with high maneuverability and precise handling. Even though transport is of the least concern to sports cars, due to its performance and the care given for handling, they are easily the costliest cars in market..

The most successful sports cars in the market had been the ones with the front-engine, and rear wheel drive layout. This layout is crucially important for the performance of a car. But in case of weight distribution and handling other layouts are also sometimes used. For example, the RMR layout is also found in sports cars which has a center mounted chassis. Ferrari and Lambhorgini have preferred this layout in their cars.

Porsche is one of he manufactures who use a rear-wheel drive, rear-engine layout. The most known among their cars to use layout is the Porsche 911. A Porsche 911 provides excellent traction, but due to the concentration of weight at the back, it becomes prone to over steering in some conditions. To overcome this, Porsche has made other adjustments electronically, to readjust the shortcomings over the years.

Power-weight ratio:
The power to weight ratio is one of the most important factors involved in the manufacturing of sports engine. This is due to the fact that the heavier the vehicle the greater the power required to increase vehicle speed and acceleration. It is always good to keep the weight of the engine as low as possible. For this, aluminum alloys are used for cylinder heads.
The Turbo charging of the air intake is basically force-feeding the air in to the engine. By doing this, almost 50% more fuel can be injected into the engine which improves performance.

The Over-square engine:
An oversquare or shortstroke engine is an engine whose cylinders have a greater bore (width, diameter) than the length of the piston. This is a positive aspect, because a longer stroke means greater friction and a weaker crankshaft. An oversquare engine is generally more reliable, and can be run at a higher speed; however, with good technology the limitations of other engine regarding this, can be overcome.

Another important factor involved in performance is the bore size to the length of the piston stroke. An over square shorter stroke sports engine is more suited to a high power output engine, typical of that used in sports cars. A sports car has average speeds around 300 km/h. Some of the best performing sports cars in terms of speeds are given below.

Mercedes-Benz C 63 AMG Coupe VÄTH V63 – 208 mph
BMW M3 G-Power SK III Sporty Drive RS – 208 mph
BMW M3 G-Power M3 SK II – 206 mph
BMW 1M G-Power G1 V8 Hurricane RS – 205 mph
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Ted Silva at Cal State Fullerton Baseball Team

Ted Silva is a pitcher coach who had won many awards and honours such as All-America First Team, College World Series All-Tournament Team, Big West Pitcher of the Year and
All-Big West First Team.

In the year 2005 – 06, Ted silva started his coaching career as a volunteer assitant at Cal State Fullerton, who was a former CSF All- America right-hander. At Cal State Fullerton, Silva guided the Titan staff log a national-best at 4.54 ERA (In 2006, this team was the only team in the country under 3.00) to a pair of Big West conference Championships, and a trip to the College World series. After that, Silva joined as a pitching coach at Nebraska on June 17, 2011

Before his coaching career at Cal State Fullerton:
Before his coaching career, he was a “standout pitcher” at Cal State Fullerton from 1993-1995 and was a two-time first-team all-conference selection. In 1994, he represented Titans on Team USA. In 1995, Silva earned first-team All-America honor for playing a key role in winning the national title for Titans. In the same year, The Big West Conference named him as the “Pitcher of the Year” for leading the nation in victories with a single – season record school-record 18 wins (18-1 overall)
In “1995 Major League Baseball Draft” the following members of the Cal State Fullerton Titan baseball program. At that time, Titans baseball team was coached by Augie Garrido.

Player Position Round Overall MLB Team

Jon Ward




St. Louis Cardinals

Tim Dixon




Montreal Expos

D.C. Olsen




Montreal Expos

Ted Silva




Texas Rangers

Tony Miranda




Kansas City Royals

John Mitchell




Toronto Blue Jays

Joe Fraser




Minnesota Twins

Brian Loyd




Cincinnati Reds

Jeremy Giambi




Detroit Tigers


World’s Best Selling Cars of 2013

Forbes released a list of world’s best-selling cars in 2013. Ford Focus is in the first place among them. The other models from different makes such as Toyota, Volkswagen, Hyundai, Chevrolet, and Honda are in the race with its big numbers. Now we will see them.

  • Ford Focus: The Ford Focus is an example for its global strategy. In the United States it is outsold by other small cars, but occupied world’s number one position for its worldwide large numbers sales. LMC Automotive expects that Ford Focus may short by the Toyota Corolla, in this year. As it already more than a million vehicles sold.
  • Toyota Corolla: In the year 2012 Toyota Corolla is the world’s most popular car and number one best seller. But it lost its position in the year 2013 and stands after Ford Focus in the second position. The redesigned Corolla is fun to drive and looking more stylish achieved a million plus number in the vehicles sales.
  • Volkswagen Jetta: The Volkswagen Jetta was sold with different names in different markets, those are Bora or Vento. It has a variety of powertrains. Jetta has both hybrid and diesel engines. The worldwide sale of these vehicles are projected by LMC are more than 905 thousands.
  • Hyundai Elantra: The Hyundai Elantra sold as Avante in its home market, Korea. Hyundai become a major competent in the global automotive industry. With 11 percent up from 2012 sales it expected about 866,000 vehicles sales worldwide with both Elantra and Avante models.
  • Chevrolet Cruze: Chevrolet launched Cruze in China in 2009. This is its first truly global car. This played a key role behind the growth of the Chevrolet brand worldwide. In 2013 its worldwide sales are expected to exceed 729,000 vehicles.
  • Toyota Camry: Camry is the most popular passenger car in the United States and has good number of sales. This is the only mid-sized vehicle in the Forbes world’s best seller list. Its projected global sales in 2013 are 728,230 vehicles.
  • Volkswagen Golf: The seventh generation Volkswagen Golf has yet to go on sale in United States and China. But it is already in the best selling rank of Forbes list. The new model of golf and along with the Exiting model in Chine and the United States, it is expected more than 720,000 vehicles according to LMC. The new model will be launch in the United States as 2015 model.
  • Ford Fiesta: Ford Fiesta is a mini lcar. In the United States it has seen moderate success, but its high tech package and sporty made this mini car as popular in many countries. Its global sales are expected to more than 705,000 vehicles.

Honda CR–V and Volkswagen Polo are in the list. The Honda CR–V sales are expected to be more than 697,000 for the year 2013. And the Volkswagen Polo is expected 686,000 vehicles.
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Best Selling Models of Volkswagen in 2013

The German automobile manufacturer is the second largest automaker in the world. The website 24/7 Wall St compiled three cars that Volkswagen has them in the top ten best selling list of all time. Those models are Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen Golf. These are not in the top ten list for the year ended 2013 as per the sales statistics in America. Volkswagen Jetta and Passat are in the race with 12th and 22nd positions respectively. Now we will see these two in detail.

Toyota Prius has given a good competition in both the years, but it is not overreached the Volkswagen Jetta. Due to this decrease and an increase of 3.6 percent in sales Nissan Versa took the 21st rank. Mazda 3 has given a good competition to Volkswagen Passat for the year 2013.

  • Volkswagen Jetta: The sales of Volkswagen Jetta in 2013 are 163,793. In the year 2012 ended it has sold 170,424. It shows a decrease in sales of about 3.9 percent during the year.
  • The gas mileage of Volkswagen Jetta is 22 to 30 mpg in city traffic and 33 to 42 on highway traffic.
  • Advantages with the Volkswagen Jetta including fuel efficient, smooth ride quality and spacious interior and trunk. Drawbacks are weak base engine, sluggish throttle with automatic, high price of TDI for diesel model, and lackluster interior materials.
  • Its 2013 model comes standard with active front head restraints, side curtain airbags, front side airbags, traction and stability control. Except for the base model, all Jetta models have front and rear anti-lock disc brakes.
  • In the government crash test, Volkswagen Jetta got four star rating out of five. Of this five stars for side impact protection and four stars for front crash protection. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has given good rating for its roof strength and frontal offset tests.
  • Volkswagen Passat: The sales of the Volkswagen Passat in the previous year are 117,023. With 6.3 percent of decrease, in 2013 it achieved 109,652.
  • The Volkswagen Passat’s city mileage is 20 to 31 mpg and highway is 28 to 43 mpg.
  • The diesel TDI is fuel-efficient, good quality smooth riding and spacious trunk and interior are the pros for Volkswagen Passat. Cons are weak base engine, sluggish throttle with automatic, price of TDI is high, and lackluster interior materials.
  • Volkswagen Passat standard safety features in 2013 model include side curtain airbags, front side airbags, traction and stability control, and anti-lock disc brakes. The hill hold control is also available in manual transmission models. When it met a crash incident, the Intelligent Crash Response will automatically cut the fuel supply, unlock the doors and hazard flashers turns on.
  • In the government crash, for side crash protection, frontal impact protection and over all protection it got five star rating. In the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ratings it got the rating of ‘good’.

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